Recent studies have shown that Nogo-A and the Nogo-A receptor affect β-amyloid metabolism and the downstream Rho GTP enzyme signaling pathway, which may affect the levels of β-amyloid and tau. Nogo-A may play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of Fasudil treatment in Alzheimer's disease are not yet clear. Our results have found that Fasudil treatment for two months substantially ameliorated behavioral deficits, diminished β-amyloid plaque and tau protein pathology, and alleviated neuronal apoptosis in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. More importantly, two well-established markers for synaptic function, growth-associated protein 43 and synaptophysin, were upregulated after Fasudil treatment. Finally, the levels of Nogo-A, Nogo-A receptor complex NgR/p75NTR/LINGO-1 and the downstream Rho/Rho kinase signaling pathway were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that Fasudil exerts its neuroprotective function in Alzheimer's disease by inhibiting the Nogo-A/NgR1/RhoA signaling pathway.