Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity (Sep 2023)

Effect of Aerobic Exercise in Chinese Adult Individuals at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) with Low Salivary Amylase Gene (AMY1) Copy Number Variation

  • Zhang X,
  • Moran C,
  • Wang R,
  • Zhou Y

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 16
pp. 2875 – 2883


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Xinming Zhang,1,* Colin Moran,2,* Ruiyuan Wang,3 Yue Zhou3 1School of Sport Science, Nantong University, Nantong City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, The United Kingdom; 3School of Sport Science, Beijing Sport University, Beijing City, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workCorrespondence: Xinming Zhang, Nantong University, No. 9 Seyuan Road, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 15901080090, Email [email protected]: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a life-threatening health problem around the world. Studies have confirmed that aerobic exercise can prevent the risk of T2DM. Furthermore, recent research showed that salivary amylase gene (AMY1) copy number variation (CNV) could be one of the genetic factors that increased the risk of T2DM. To provide more evidence on how AMY1 CNV and exercise is correlated with the risk of T2DM, we designed this study to show the differences in postprandial carbohydrate metabolism between people with different AMY1 copy numbers, and how aerobic exercise can influence this process.Participants and Methods: Sixteen participants without cardiovascular disease were chosen, 8 with AMY1 CNV≥ 6 (High CNV group, HCNV), and 8 with AMY1 CNV ≤ 2 (Low CNV group, LCNV). All participants were Chinese, Han nationality, 18 to 40 years old, with fasting blood glucose lower than 6.1 mmol/L and normal blood pressure levels. They were asked to visit the laboratory in fasting state and drink a cup of solution with 75 grams of edible carbohydrate (glucose or starch). After carbohydrate intake, blood samples were taken at certain times at rest or after aerobic exercise. Blood glucose levels were tested with a portable blood glucose monitor, and insulin levels were tested with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: The LCNV group had significantly higher resting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) than the HCNV group. Compared to the HCNV group, postprandial blood glucose levels and insulin levels were insensitive to starch intake in the LCNV group. However, this difference disappeared after aerobic exercise was added as an intervention.Conclusion: Lower AMY1 CNV could be associated with higher risk of T2DM and complex carbohydrate metabolism disorder, while aerobic exercise can reduce the risk by increasing the carbohydrate utilization rate.Keywords: salivary amylase gene, copy number variation, blood glucose, insulin