Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess the health utility of leukemia patients in China using the EQ-5D-5L, compare it with the population norms, and identify the potential factors associated with health utility. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional survey was conducted in three tertiary hospitals from July 2015 to February 2016. A total of 186 patients with leukemia completed the EQ-5D-5L and their health utility scores were calculated using the Chinese value set. EQ-5D-5L utility and dimensions scores of leukemia patients were compared with China’s population norms using Kruskal–Wallis test and chi square test. Potential factors associated with health utility were identified using Tobit regression. Results The mean EQ-5D-5L utility scores of patients with leukemia, grouped by either gender or age, were significantly lower than those of the general population (p < 0.001). The same results were found for individual dimensions of EQ-5D-5L, where leukemia patients reported more health problems than the general population (p < 0.001). The utility score of leukemia patients was found to be significantly related to medical insurance, religious belief, comorbidities, social support and ECOG performance status. Conclusion This study indicated that leukemia patients have worse health status compared to the general population of China and that multiple factors affect the health utility of the patients. The utility scores reported in this study could be useful in future cost-utility analysis.