Nuclear Materials and Energy (2017-08-01)

Main chamber wall plasma loads in JET-ITER-like wall at high radiated fraction

  • C. Guillemaut,
  • P. Drewelow,
  • G.F. Matthews,
  • A.S. Kukushkin,
  • R.A. Pitts,
  • P. Abreu,
  • S. Brezinsek,
  • M. Brix,
  • P. Carman,
  • R. Coelho,
  • S. Devaux,
  • J. Flanagan,
  • C. Giroud,
  • D. Harting,
  • C.G. Lowry,
  • C.F. Maggi,
  • F. Militello,
  • C. Perez Von Thun,
  • E.R. Solano,
  • A. Widdowson,
  • S. Wiesen,
  • M. Wischmeier,
  • D. Wood

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 12
pp. 234 – 240

Abstract

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Future tokamak reactors of conventional design will require high levels of exhaust power dissipation (more than 90% of the input power) if power densities at the divertor targets are to remain compatible with active cooling. Impurity seeded H-mode discharges in JET-ITER-like Wall (ILW) have reached a maximum radiative fraction (Frad) of ∼75%. Divertor Langmuir probe (LP) measurements in these discharges indicate, however, that less than ∼3% of the thermal plasma power reaches the targets, suggesting a missing channel for power loss. This paper presents experimental evidence from limiter LP for enhanced cross-field particle fluxes on the main chamber walls at high Frad. In H-mode nitrogen-seeded discharges with Frad increasing from ∼30% to up to ∼75%, the main chamber wall particle fluence rises by a factor ∼3 while the divertor plasma fluence drops by one order of magnitude. Contribution of main chamber wall particle losses to detachment, as suggested by EDGE2D-EIRENE modeling, is not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the observed divertor fluence reduction. An intermediate detached case obtained at Frad ∼ 60% with neon seeding is also presented. Heat loads were measured using the main chamber wall thermocouples. Comparison between thermocouple and bolometry measurements shows that the fraction of the input power transported to the main chamber wall remains below ∼5%, whatever the divertor detachment state is. Main chamber sputtering of beryllium by deuterium is reduced in detached conditions only on the low field side. If the fraction of power exhaust dissipated to the main chamber wall by cross-field transport in future reactors is similar to the JET-ILW levels, wall plasma power loading should not be an issue. However, other contributions such as charge exchange may be a problem.