Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, ranks as the fifth most common cancer and has been the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are proteins that interact with different classes of RNA and are commonly detected in cells. Methods We used RNA sequencing data from TCGA to display dysfunctional RBPs microenvironments and provide potential useful biomarkers for HCC diagnosis and prognosis. Results 330 differently expressed RBPs (208 upregulated and 122 downregulated) were identified. KEGG were mainly enriched in RNA degradation, Influenza A, Hepatitis C, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, Herpes simplex virus 1 infection and RNA transport. CBioPortal results demonstrated that these genes were altered in 50 samples out of 357 HCC patients (14%) and the amplification of BRCA1 was the largest frequent copy-number alteration. Conclusion Based on the online database, we identified novel RBPs markers for the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.