The article deals with the distribution of population in the county of Proszowice (within the Voivodeship of Cracow) at the end of the 18th century based on the censuses of the Civil-Military Order Commission of the Cracow Voivodeship. The censuses in question, in spite of the fact that a few parishes were passed over, depicted the situation quite precisely. That is why it was possible to carry out an analysis not only of the overall number of population in particular places and parishes but also of the distribution of Jews, gentry and clergy. A special attention was paid to the ownership structure in the county, the surface of parishes, the density of population and the urbanisation of the county. The GIS (Geographic InformationSystem) tools and statistical methods were used in the analysis.