In this study, we aimed to design a highly swellable and mechanically robust matrix tablet (SMT) as a gastroretentive drug-delivery system (GRDDS) capable of improving the dissolution behavior of β-lapachone with low aqueous solubility. For the preparation of SMTs, the cogrinding technique and freeze−thaw method were used to disperse β-lapachone in SMTs in an amorphous state and to enhance the swelling and mechanical properties of SMTs, respectively. As a result, the crystallinity of coground β-lapachone incorporated in the SMTs was found to be considerably decreased; thereby, the dissolution rates of the drug in a simulated gastric fluid could be substantially increased. The SMTs of β-lapachone also demonstrated significantly enhanced swelling and mechanical properties compared to those of a marketed product. The reason for this might be because the physically crosslinked polymeric networks with a porous structure that were formed in SMTs through the freeze−thaw method. In addition, β-lapachone was gradually released from the SMTs in 6 h. Therefore, SMTs of β-lapachone developed in this study could be used as GRDDS with appropriate swelling and mechanical properties for improving the dissolution behavior of hydrophobic drugs such as β-lapachone.