In this study, a nanocomposite based on kaolin from the Alekseevsky deposit (Kazakhstan), containing nano-silver particles, was synthesized. Kaolin has good physical and chemical properties and is an effective carrier for medicines. The synthesis of AgNPs/kaolin nanocomposites was carried out by chemical reduction. Impregnation of silver nanoparticles into silica matrix can prevent the agglomeration of mobile ions, and thereby preserve the antibacterial activity of the compound. The composition and structure of the resulting nanocomposite were studied using SEM/EDS analysis to study the morphology and elemental composition of natural and silver-modified kaolin, the specific surface was determined by the BET method, and functional groups were identified by IR spectroscopy. The resulting composite was tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (E.Сoli, S. Aureus).