Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive diseases of the nervous system that lead to neuron loss or functional disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases require long-term, sometimes life-long pharmacological treatment, which increases the risk of adverse effects and a negative impact of pharmaceuticals on the patients’ general condition. One of the main problems related to the treatment of this type of condition is the limited ability to deliver drugs to the brain due to their poor solubility, low bioavailability, and the effects of the blood-brain barrier. Given the above, one of the main objectives of contemporary scientific research focuses on the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. As disorders related to the competence of the antioxidative system are a marker in all diseases of this type, the primary prophylactics should entail the use of exogenous antioxidants, particularly ones that can be used over extended periods, regardless of the patient’s age, and that are easily available, e.g., as part of a diet or as diet supplements. The paper analyzes the significance of the oxidoreductive balance in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Based on information published globally in the last 10 years, an analysis is also provided with regard to the impact of exogenous antioxidants on brain functions with respect to the prevention of this type of diseases.