Currently, Internet penetration is accelerating across the country in Bangladesh, which, in particular, has led to the simultaneous development and growth of online businesses. Due to increased internet availability and accessibility, a number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) continue to operate using an Internet-driven online platform. This context requires a research effort to investigate the underlying factors that might influence the business performance of online SMEs. Thus, the aim of the study is to examine the impact of e-marketing orientation (EMO), technology orientation (TO), and learning capability (LC) on online SME performance in the context of Bangladesh. In this study, the dependent variable is online SME performance, whereas the independent variables are EMO, TO and LC. To achieve this objective, the study developed a questionnaire based on past literature. Following a non-probability random sampling approach, 320 survey forms were distributed among online SME owners using the online survey system (Google form), and finally 156 responses were realized as fully complete responses. Hence, the study sample size is n = 156. SPSS version no. 26 was used to analyze the correlation among independent and dependent variables and to test the hypotheses. During statistical analysis, the 5% significance level is used as a threshold value to accept hypotheses. The study results show that EMO, TO and LC have a statistical and significant impact on online SME performance. Finally, this paper seeks to outline several important implications for online SME owners, as well as suggest several directions for future research.