Renal transplantation has become the sole most preferred therapy modality for end-stage renal disease patients. The growing tendency for renal transplants, and prolonged survival of renal recipients, have resulted in a certain number of post-transplant colorectal cancer patients. Antitumor pharmacotherapy in these patients is a dilemma. Substantial impediments such as carcinogenesis of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs), drug interaction between ISDs and anticancer drugs, and toxicity of anticancer drugs exist. However, experience of antitumor pharmacotherapy in these patients is limited, and the potential risks and benefits have not been reviewed systematically. This review evaluates the potential impediments, summarizes current experience, and provides potential antitumor strategies, including adjuvant, palliative, and subsequent regimens. Moreover, special pharmaceutical care, such as ISDs therapeutic drug monitoring, metabolic enzymes genotype, and drug interaction, are also highlighted.