Objective Lumbar spondylolisthesis (LS) is a common lumbar disease, and the prevalence of LS in different countries or regions was not consistent in the past. This study intends to make statistics on the prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis in middle‐aged people in Beijing community. Methods This is an epidemiological study. 4548 people in Beijing community aged 50 to 64 years were recruited from the local communities by advertisements placed in housing estates and community centres for people to take part in a prospective cohort study from August from September 2013 to March 2014. There is no intervention on the subjects. RadiAnt DICOM Viewer is adopted to read the lateral CT positioning images of all the studied objects, adjust the image as bone window, observe and evaluate the slide of L1 to L5 vertebra in the lateral CT positioning image. Results Among the 4,548 subjects included in the study, 2,490 (54.75%) were male and 2,058 (45.25%) were female. A total of 785 subjects had lumbar spondylolisthesis, with a total incidence of 17.26%. There was no significant difference between prevalence of males and females in the subgroup 50‐54 years old (13.55% males / 12.53% females) and 55‐59 years old (14.77% males / 14.93% females). But the prevalence of LS in 60‐64 years old females (28.57%) increased significantly, compared with 55‐59 years old females (14.93%) and 60‐64 years old males (18.76%). There were 847 levels that had slipped, L5S1 > L4/5 > L3/4 > L2/3 > L1/2. The retrolisthesis was the most, accounting for 61.51% (521/847), and the anterolisthesis was 38.49% (326/847), including anterolisthesis gradeI for 95.71% (312/326), anterolisthesis gradeII for 4.29% (14/326). Neither of anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis presented more than grade III. Among all the subjects, 318 had anterolisthesis, with a total incidence of 6.99%, and 467 subjects only had retrolisthesis. Conclusion The total prevalence of LS in the middle‐aged people in Beijing community was 17.26%, 15.98% in males and 18.80% in females, and women are more likely to suffer from LS after 60 years old.