The differentiation of the lateral plate mesoderm cells into heart field cells constitutes a critical step in the development of cardiac tissue and the genesis of functional cardiomyocytes. Hippo signaling controls cardiomyocyte proliferation, but the role of Hippo signaling during early cardiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that Hippo signaling regulates atrial cell number by specifying the developmental potential of cells within the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), which are incorporated into the venous pole of the heart tube and ultimately into the atrium of the heart. We demonstrate that Hippo signaling acts through large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 to modulate BMP signaling and the expression of hand2, a key transcription factor that is involved in the differentiation of atrial cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hippo signaling defines venous pole cardiomyocyte number by modulating both the number and the identity of the ALPM cells that will populate the atrium of the heart.