This study aimed to evaluate disease and injury trends among wintering members of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. Obtained information is indispensable to the advancement of medical system and research. Summation was performed based on medical records of reports prepared by each expedition over the period 1956–2016. The clinical department’s classification methods of the names of injuries and diseases varied among expeditions, but the names were integrated following the same classification. Of 1734 members (29 women), 6837 disease or injury cases (4 cases/person) were recorded. The rates of cases were as follows: surgical-orthopaedic (45.3%), internal medical (21.7%), dental (11.6%), dermatological (8.4%), ophthalmological (5.8%), otorhinolaryngological (5.3%), psychiatric (1.6%), and urological (0.1%) cases. There was no major change in rates by type of medical case in each expedition. This analysis made it possible to prepare medical facilities, content of physical examinations to select members, training of physicians before departure, preventive hygiene at sites, and medical research themes.