Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity (Nov 2021)

Classic Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Similarity and Discrepancy of Immunological Characteristics and Cytokine Profile

  • Ying L,
  • Zhang Y,
  • Yin J,
  • Wang Y,
  • Lu W,
  • Zhu W,
  • Bao Y,
  • Zhou J

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 14
pp. 4661 – 4670


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Lingwen Ying,1,* Yong Zhang,2,* Jun Yin,1,* Yufei Wang,1 Wei Lu,1 Wei Zhu,1 Yuqian Bao,1 Jian Zhou1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital; Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes; Shanghai Diabetes Institute; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai, 200233, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workCorrespondence: Jian ZhouDepartment of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai, 200233, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-21-64369181Fax +86-21-64368031Email [email protected]: We aimed to explore the immunological characteristics and cytokine profile of the initial stage of type 1 diabetes.Patients and Methods: In total, 123 age- and sex-matched subjects with newly diagnosed classic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1ADM), fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were enrolled. Serum cytokine levels were measured using Milliplex MAP multifactor detection.Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ 1) and TGFβ 2 and decrease in programmed death-1 (PD-1), PD ligand 1 (PD-L1), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and anti-inflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes patients compared with the NGT subjects (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood routine indicators between the two groups. Type 1 diabetes was further divided into T1ADM and FT1DM subgroups. FT1DM patients had much higher CRP levels than T1ADM patients (4.90 [0.95– 26.05] mg/L vs 0.39 [0.20– 0.74] mg/L, P < 0.01). Blood routine results showed that the number of leukocytes was significantly increased in FT1DM compared with that in T1ADM (9.2 [5.1– 18.8] × 109 cells/L vs 5.4 [4.5– 6.7] × 109 cells/L, P < 0.01). In FT1DM patients, neutrophil% was increased, and lymphocyte% was declined significantly, compared with that in T1ADM patients (neutrophil%: 80.2 [59.2– 85.2]% vs 59.5 [54.8– 64.0]%; lymphocyte%: 18.3 [10.1– 32.3]% vs 32.6 [26.8– 35.9]%; both P < 0.01). However, there was no difference between FT1DM and T1ADM in cytokine profile except for the decrease in CTLA-4 in T1ADM (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Compared with T1ADM, CRP and leukocytes’ levels were increased significantly in FT1DM, with an increase in neutrophil% and decline in lymphocyte%, suggesting that FT1DM may have more abrupt onset and occur as a more serious subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus.Keywords: cytokine profile, fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus, immune response, multifactor detection, type 1 diabetes mellitus