Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to cognitive impairments and increased risk for dementia. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated T2DM-related brain structural and functional changes which are partly associated to the cognitive decline. However, few studies focused on the early neuroimaging findingsin T2DM patients. In this study, a data-driven whole-brain resting state functional connectivity strength (rsFCS) methodwas used to evaluate resting functional changes in 53 T2DM patients compared with 55 matched healthy controls (HCs), and to detect the associations between the rsFCSchanges and cognitive functions in T2DM patients. The T2DM patients exhibited weaker long-range rsFCS in the right insula and weaker short-range rsFCS in the right supramarginalgyrus (SG) compared with the HCs. Additionally, seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis revealed weaker FC between the right insula and the bilateral superior parietal lobule (SPL), and between the right SG and the bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA)/right SPL in T2DM patientscompared with the HCs. In T2DM patients, negative correlation was found between the long-range rsFCS in the right insula and HbA1c levels; and the FC between the right SG and the bilateral SMA negatively correlated with TMT-A scores. Our results indicated that the rsFCS alteration occurredbefore obvious cognitive deficits in T2DM patients, which might be helpful for understanding the neuromechanism of cognitive declines in T2DM patients.