Journal of Pain Research (2021-01-01)

Translation and Validation of Fear of Pain-9 Items into Simplified Chinese Version for Mainland China

  • Luo Y,
  • Li S,
  • He J,
  • Cai D,
  • Dai Y,
  • Feng L,
  • Sun C,
  • Zhu X

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 14
pp. 35 – 40

Abstract

Read online

Yang Luo,1,* Sisi Li,2,* Jingting He,1 Dan Cai,3 Yi Dai,3 Lijuan Feng,1 Chengqin Sun,1 Xiaoping Zhu4 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Nursing Department, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4Nursing Department, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workCorrespondence: Jingting HeDepartment of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 JieFang Avenue, Wuhan 430022, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +8615007122833Fax +862785871829Email [email protected]: This study aimed to obtain a translation and validation of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire 9 Items (FOP-9) into simplified Chinese.Methods: The questionnaire was translated following the forward-backward method. The final version was filled out by (n = 300) patients. Cronbach’s coefficient was calculated to test the internal consistency of simplified Chinese version of FOP-9 (sc-FOP-9), and 50 painless patients completed the sc-FOP-9 questionnaire within a 2-weeks interval to evaluate test–retest reliability. To verify the construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the goodness fit of models.Results: Satisfactory psychometric qualities were obtained (Cronbach’s α of the total score was 0.873 and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.975). Three first-order models were tested and all show a good model fit and the 3-factor structure may be better due to its higher factor loading.Conclusion: The sc-FOP-9 is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the fear of pain among Chinese patients with or without pain. Fear of pain may have an important effect on perioperative pain and chronic pain, and this tool is a good complement to the measurement in mainland China.Keywords: fear of pain, reliability, validity, Chinese, pain-related fear

Keywords