Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and the cognitive impairments associated with this degenerative disease seriously affect daily life. Nutraceuticals for the prevention or delay of AD are urgently needed. It has been increasingly observed that phycocyanin (PC) exerts neuroprotective effects. AD model mice intracerebroventricularly injected with amyloid beta-peptide 25–35 (Aβ25–35) at 10 nmol/head displayed significant cognitive impairment in the spontaneous alternation test. Cognitive impairment was significantly ameliorated in mice treated with 750 mg/kg of enzyme-digested (ED) PC by daily oral administration for 22 consecutive days. Application of DNA microarray data on hippocampal gene expression to nutrigenomics studies revealed that oral EDPC counteracted the aberrant expression of 35 genes, including Prnp, Cct4, Vegfd (Figf), Map9 (Mtap9), Pik3cg, Zfand5, Endog, and Hbq1a. These results suggest that oral administration of EDPC ameliorated cognitive impairment in AD model mice by maintaining and/or restoring normal gene expression patterns in the hippocampus.