The aim of the article is to found the regularities, the recurring tendencies in the development of the patriotism concept in political ideology. Ancient society is used as a “laboratory” for studying these regularities. Since it is very simple in its social structure, its worldview paradigms, including patriotic ones, appear in the political ideology of antiquity in an extremely clear, refined form. The article considers versions of conceptualization of “civic duty” and “patriotism” in the political ideas of Antiquity. It emphasizes that the concept formation of “patriotism” is directly related to the civil identity formation. The evolution of the concept reflects significant changes in the society including those determined by social differentiation. The article indicates that the concepts of patriotism are not just tools of ideological struggle between different political forces, but having a deeper nature, they reflect significant changes in society. The study of this evolution allows us to reveal the patterns that are reflected in the modern political trends.