The city is a typical natural and social dual water circulation area. The water use characteristics of the city have obvious dual attributes, and there are many factors (both on nature and social side) affecting the urban water consumption (UWC). This article aimed to research the structure and characteristics of the UWC. Taking the provincial capital cities of China as the research objects, 24 index factors and data of the year 2015 were selected to construct a multivariate regression model between urban UWC and index factors. The results showed that the combination of correlation analysis and full subset regression could effectively screen the prediction variables of UWC. Principal component analysis could effectively reduce variable dimensions of UWC while preserving raw dataset information as much as possible. The main factors affecting UWC on the social side include the built-up area, the urban population, road cleaning area, residential electricity consumption, and per capital water consumption, and the main factors of the natural side include per capital green land and precipitation.