Abstract Background Monostotic fibrous dysplasia (MFD) involving the spine is rare, and the treatment options are controversial. Surgery is needed when patients suffer from persistent pain, spinal cord compression/injury, and vertebral collapse/instability. Treatment methods include biopsy/observation, corpectomy with instrumented fusion, posterior fusion, vertebroplasty (VP), curettage and bone graft, and complete removal of the vertebra with a combined anterior and posterior fusion procedure. Case presentation The patient was a 56-year-old woman with a 2-year history of neck pain. No obvious abnormalities were detected on neurological or physical examination, and laboratory findings were all within normal limits. An imaging examination suggested a C7 vertebral bone tumor. The patient refused to continue conservative observation treatment and requested surgery. Open VP of the C7 vertebral body was carried out, and her postoperative neck pain was completely relieved. The postoperative pathological results supported the diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia, and the patient was ultimately diagnosed with MFD. At the 12-month follow-up visit, the patient reported no clinical symptoms, and no signs of tumor recurrence were detected. Conclusion VP can relieve pain while stabilizing the spine. Thus, the surgical treatment of MFD vertebral lesions by VP is a valuable option.