Flora Infeksiyon Hastalıkları ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi (2017-06-01)

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

  • Semra ÖZ,
  • Mehtap BOLAT,
  • Mustafa ALTINDİŞ

DOI
https://doi.org/10.5578/flora.61921
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 22, no. 2
pp. 51 – 57

Abstract

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Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) was first isolated in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in the 1990s from the blood of a butcher. The name of the virus has been accepted by the International Commission on Taxation of Viruses as Alkhurma. AHFV is also a member of the flavivirus family. Human infections have been linked to contact with small ruminants (sheep, goats) and camels, and consumption of un-pasteurized dairy products from infected animals (camel) has been reported as a mode of transmission so far. The most important factor contributing to the incidence of disease is the abundance of ticks containing a high dose of infectious AHFV that occur in the animal habitat. There are several factors that potentially influence the incidence of a global epidemic, including migrant workers, annual hajj and umrah pilgrimages, livestock trade between neighboring countries, and the presence of military personnel and their activities in this region. Fever, headache, and elevated levels of liver enzymes are almost seen in all patients. Common body pain, joint pain, loss of appetite, vomiting, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, high creatinine phosphokinase and urea values are other major clinical conditions. Diagnosis is mostly made clinically. Presently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to treat or prevent AHFV. We should be attentive against the risk of moving this virus into our country through our citizens who return to Turkey especially after being in Saudi Arabia for pilgrimage which includes sacrificing small ruminants. Our people should be informed adequately and precautions should be taken against possible risks. Strict supervision and control should also be observed for the control of infected cattle. In this manuscript, information about the general characteristics of the virus, transmission and epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and ways of protection were reviewed.

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