International Journal of Molecular Sciences (Jul 2022)

Injectable Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a Drug Carrier Increases the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Antibiotic—Clindamycin Phosphate

  • Karina Egle,
  • Ingus Skadins,
  • Andra Grava,
  • Lana Micko,
  • Viktors Dubniks,
  • Ilze Salma,
  • Arita Dubnika

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 23, no. 13
p. 7407


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The aim of this study was to investigate the change in clindamycin phosphate antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria using the platelet-rich fibrin as a carrier matrix, and evaluate the changes in the antibiotic within the matrix. The antibacterial properties of CLP and its combination with PRF were tested in a microdilution test against reference cultures and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was done to evaluate the changes in the PRF_CLP matrix. Release kinetics of CLP was defined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). According to FTIR data, the use of PRF as a carrier for CLP ensured the structural changes in the CLP toward a more active form of clindamycin. A significant decrease in minimal bactericidal concentration values (from 1000 µg/mL to 62 µg/mL) against reference cultures and clinical isolates of S. aureus and S. epidermidis was observed for the CLP and PRF samples if compared to pure CLP solution. In vitro cell viability tests showed that PRF and PRF with CLP have higher cell viability than 70% after 24 h and 48 h time points. This article indicates that CLP in combination with PRF showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis compared to pure CLP solution. This modified PRF could be used as a novel method to increase drug delivery and efficacy, and to reduce the risk of postoperative infection.