Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer (2020-05-01)

Consensus guidelines for the definition, detection and interpretation of immunogenic cell death

  • Udo S Gaipl,
  • Dmitriy Zamarin,
  • Howard L Kaufman,
  • Dobrin Draganov,
  • Silvia C Formenti,
  • Mark J Smyth,
  • Michael T Lotze,
  • Takahiro Yamazaki,
  • Guido Kroemer,
  • Daolin Tang,
  • Eric Deutsch,
  • Sofia R Gameiro,
  • Ilio Vitale,
  • Sandy Adjemian,
  • Aitziber Buqué Martinez,
  • Timothy A Chan,
  • Richard L Edelson,
  • Lucia Gabriele,
  • Encouse Golden,
  • Kevin J Harrington,
  • Dewan Md Sakib Hossain,
  • Michael Karin,
  • Oliver Kepp,
  • Juan Jose Lasarte,
  • Sherene Loi,
  • Gwenola Manic,
  • Alan A Melcher,
  • Karen L Mossman,
  • Maria Rescigno,
  • Chiara Riganti,
  • Antonella Sistigu,
  • Bryan E Strauss,
  • Kazuki Tatsuno,
  • Stefaan W van Gool,
  • Peter Vandenabeele

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 8, no. 1


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Cells succumbing to stress via regulated cell death (RCD) can initiate an adaptive immune response associated with immunological memory, provided they display sufficient antigenicity and adjuvanticity. Moreover, multiple intracellular and microenvironmental features determine the propensity of RCD to drive adaptive immunity. Here, we provide an updated operational definition of immunogenic cell death (ICD), discuss the key factors that dictate the ability of dying cells to drive an adaptive immune response, summarize experimental assays that are currently available for the assessment of ICD in vitro and in vivo, and formulate guidelines for their interpretation.