Abstract Proprioceptive training is a neurorehabilitation approach known to improve proprioceptive acuity and motor performance of a joint/limb system. Here, we examined if such learning transfers to the contralateral joints. Using a robotic exoskeleton, 15 healthy, right-handed adults (18–35 years) trained a visuomotor task that required making increasingly small wrist movements challenging proprioceptive function. Wrist position sense just-noticeable-difference thresholds (JND) and spatial movement accuracy error (MAE) in a wrist-pointing task that was not trained were assessed before and immediately as well as 24 h after training. The main results are: first, training reduced JND thresholds (− 27%) and MAE (− 33%) in the trained right wrist. Sensory and motor gains were observable 24 h after training. Second, in the untrained left wrist, mean JND significantly decreased (− 32%) at posttest. However, at retention the effect was no longer significant. Third, motor error at the untrained wrist declined slowly. Gains were not significant at posttest, but MAE was significantly reduced (− 27%) at retention. This study provides first evidence that proprioceptive-focused visuomotor training can induce proprioceptive and motor gains not only in the trained joint but also in the contralateral, homologous joint. We discuss the possible neurophysiological mechanism behind such sensorimotor transfer and its implications for neurorehabilitation.