BioMed Research International (Jan 2021)

Moroccan Bee Bread Improves Biochemical and Histological Changes of the Brain, Liver, and Kidneys Induced by Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

  • Meryem Bakour,
  • Nawal Hammas,
  • Hassan Laaroussi,
  • Driss Ousaaid,
  • Hinde EL Fatemi,
  • Abderrazak Aboulghazi,
  • Najoua Soulo,
  • Badiaa Lyoussi

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 2021


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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) were used in various fields such as food industry, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. Despite the many advantages of nanotechnology, the adverse effects of nanoparticles are inevitable. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of bee bread on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle toxicity. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 received daily by gavage (10 mL/kg bw) of distilled water, Group 2 received bee bread ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg bw), Group 3 received TiO2 (100 mg/kg bw) and distilled water (10 mL/kg bw), and Group 4 received TiO2 (100 mg/kg bw) and bee bread ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg bw). All treatments were given daily by gavage during 30 days. At the end of the experiment period, blood samples were collected to analyze fasting blood glucose, lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and VLDL-C), liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and LDH), total protein, urea, albumin, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. In addition, histological examinations of the kidneys, liver, and brain were investigated. The results showed that the subacute administration of TiO2 alone (100 mg/kg bw) had induced hyperglycemia (309 ± 5 mg/dL) and elevation of hepatic enzyme levels, accompanied by a change in both lipid profile and renal biomarkers as well as induced congestion and dilatation in the hepatic central vein and congestion in kidney and brain tissues. However, the cotreatment with bee bread extract restored these biochemical parameters and attenuated the deleterious effects of titanium nanoparticles on brain, liver, and kidney functions which could be due to its rich content on functional molecules. The findings of this paper could make an important contribution to the field of using bee bread as a detoxifying agent against titanium dioxide nanoparticles and other xenobiotics.