This descriptive article aims to discuss the development of Finnish PhD education in science and mathematics education research over the past 20 years. First, the general aims and structure of PhD education at the national level are introduced. Doctoral studies seek to develop research knowledge and skills as well as the capability to produce novel scientific knowledge. Second, the development of PhD education in the Finnish context of science and mathematics education research is discussed. For the past 20 years, there has been a special focus on improving PhD education through national-level graduate schools and international collaboration. Finally, the recent changes in PhD education, such as the replacement of doctoral programmes at local universities, is discussed through the case of the University of Helsinki.