Singrauli region is known as the energy capital of India, as it generates nearly 21 GW of electricity, supplied to various parts of the northern India. Many coal-based Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) using coal from several nearby coal mines, and numerous industries are set up in this region which has made it as one of the highly polluted regions of India. In the present study, detailed temporal analysis and forecast of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations retrieved from satellite data have been carried out for the periods 2005–2020. Based on the classical multiplicative model and using linear regression, the maximum concentration of CO2, NO2, SO2, and CH4 in the year 2025 is found to be 422.59 ppm, 29.28 ppm, 0.23 DU, and 1901.35 ppbv, respectively. Detailed analysis shows that carbon dioxide has a 95% correlation with all other trace gases. We have also carried out the geo-accumulation index for the presence of various contaminants in the soil of this region. The geo-accumulation index shows that soil in and around thermal power plants and coal mines is contaminated by heavy metals. The cumulative index shows that soil around Hindalco industries, Bina coal mines, Khadia coal mines, and coal-based TPPs (Anpara and Vindhayachal) are highly polluted and a threat to human population living in the region.