Biomimetics (Jun 2023)

Harnessing Biofabrication Strategies to Re-Surface Osteochondral Defects: Repair, Enhance, and Regenerate

  • Fabiano Bini,
  • Salvatore D’Alessandro,
  • Andrada Pica,
  • Franco Marinozzi,
  • Gianluca Cidonio

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 8, no. 2
p. 260


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Osteochondral tissue (OC) is a complex and multiphasic system comprising cartilage and subchondral bone. The discrete OC architecture is layered with specific zones characterized by different compositions, morphology, collagen orientation, and chondrocyte phenotypes. To date, the treatment of osteochondral defects (OCD) remains a major clinical challenge due to the low self-regenerative capacity of damaged skeletal tissue, as well as the critical lack of functional tissue substitutes. Current clinical approaches fail to fully regenerate damaged OC recapitulating the zonal structure while granting long-term stability. Thus, the development of new biomimetic treatment strategies for the functional repair of OCDs is urgently needed. Here, we review recent developments in the preclinical investigation of novel functional approaches for the resurfacing of skeletal defects. The most recent studies on preclinical augmentation of OCDs and highlights on novel studies for the in vivo replacement of diseased cartilage are presented.