Prevalence and Potential Determinants of Primary Infertility in India: Evidence from Large Scale Data. Objective: Worldwide fertility is a generous human concern and anguish over infertility is its obvious upshot. Infertility, though an essential problem from the various point of view, it is yet to be given the deserved attention. The present study explored the prevalence and potential determinants of primary infertility among the currently married women in the reproductive (15–49) ages. Methods: Data from the four rounds of Indian National Family Health Survey has been used to analyse the change in infertility rates over time. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used in order to assess the effects of socioeconomic determinants on infertility in the study. Results: The prevalence of primary infertility at national, regional levels has decreased from 1992-93 to 2005-06 but it has shown a remarkable increase in 2015–16. Compared to 2005–06, the infertility rate has increased largely in the Southern states. An inverse relationship exists between the level of educational attainment, standard of living and primary infertility among the women. The plausible reasons could be the greater awareness of infertility treatments among highly educated women and increased access to expensive treatments by the richest. Considering place of residence, urban women are more prone to experience infertility in some regions, which might be due to the differentials in environment and lifestyles. Moreover, factors like vegetarian diet, overweight, obese, thyroid patient were strongly associated with primary infertility. Conclusion: Along with other demographic issues in the country, relevant policies should be formulated to tackle the problem of infertility among women in India.