Heliyon (2021-04-01)

FOXM1c is the predominant FOXM1 isoform expressed in cholangiocarcinoma that associated with metastatic potential and poor prognosis of patients

  • Nathakan Klinhom-on,
  • Wunchana Seubwai,
  • Kanlayanee Sawanyawisuth,
  • Worachart Lert-itthiporn,
  • Sakda Waraasawapati,
  • Marutpong Detarya,
  • Sopit Wongkham

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 7, no. 4
p. e06846


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Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a transcriptional factor which plays an important role in oncogenesis. Four FOXM1 isoforms, FOXM1a, FOXM1b, FOXM1c and FOXM1d, are known so far. Different FOXM1 isoforms influence progression of cancer in different cancer types. In this study, the FOXM1c isoform and its impact in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) was identified. FOXM1c was found to be the predominant isoform in patient-CCA tissues and cell lines. Detection of FOXM1c expression in CCA tissues reflected the worse prognosis of the patients, namely the advanced stage and shorter survival. Suppression of FOXM1 expression using siRNA considerably reduced migration and invasion abilities of CCA cell lines. RNA sequencing analysis revealed claudin-1 as a target of FOXM1. FOXM1 exhibited a negative correlation with claudin-1 expression which was demonstrated in patient CCA tissues and cell lines. FOXM1 may be a potential target for therapeutic treatment of the metastatic CCA.