Biomedicines (Feb 2022)

Integrative Identification of Genetic Loci Jointly Influencing Diabetes-Related Traits and Sleep Traits of Insomnia, Sleep Duration, and Chronotypes

  • Yujia Ma,
  • Zechen Zhou,
  • Xiaoyi Li,
  • Zeyu Yan,
  • Kexin Ding,
  • Han Xiao,
  • Yiqun Wu,
  • Tao Wu,
  • Dafang Chen

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10, no. 2
p. 368


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Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and sleep problems. A comprehensive study is needed to decipher whether shared polygenic risk variants exist between diabetic traits and sleep traits. Methods: We integrated summary statistics from different genome-wide association studies and investigated overlap in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diabetes-related traits (type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and glycated hemoglobin) and sleep traits (insomnia symptoms, sleep duration, and chronotype) using a conditional/conjunctional false discovery rate approach. Pleiotropic genes were further evaluated for differential expression analysis, and we assessed their expression pattern effects on type 2 diabetes by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Results: We observed extensive polygenic pleiotropy between diabetic traits and sleep traits. Fifty-eight independent genetic loci jointly influenced the risk of type 2 diabetes and the sleep traits of insomnia, sleep duration, and chronotype. The strongest shared locus between type 2 diabetes and sleep straits was FTO (lead SNP rs8047587). Type 2 diabetes (z score, 16.19; P = 6.29 × 10−59) and two sleep traits, sleep duration (z score, −6.66; P = 2.66 × 10−11) and chronotype (z score, 7.42; P = 1.19 × 10−13), were shared. Two of the pleiotropic genes, ENSA and PMPCA, were validated to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes, and PMPCA showed a slight protective effect on type 2 diabetes in MR analysis. Conclusions: Our study provided evidence for the polygenic overlap between diabetic traits and sleep traits, of which the expression of PMPCA may play a crucial role and provide support of the hazardous effect of being an “evening” person on diabetes risk.