Abstract Renal anemia is a complication of chronic kidney disease. Guidelines for safe and effective treatment in patients with renal anemia are needed. The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) published guidelines for the treatment of renal anemia in chronic hemodialysis patients in 2004 and in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, predialysis, and pediatric patients in 2008. These two publications provide excellent guidance with respect to clinical practice issues, including the definition and diagnosis of renal anemia, the criteria for the initiation of treatment, target hemoglobin levels, iron supplementation therapy, blood transfusion, and side effects. The guidelines significantly improved the treatment of renal anemia in Japan. However, since 2008, many studies have assessed the treatment of renal anemia, and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are now available. Therefore, the Executive Board of the JSDT decided that it was time to revise the guidelines to make them more appropriate to the situation of chronic kidney disease patients in Japan. This is the third edition of the guidelines for renal anemia published by the JSDT. The purpose is to improve the prognosis of chronic kidney disease patients, including after renal transplantation, through the treatment of renal anemia. The intended users of the guidelines are all healthcare professionals engaged in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Regarding the treatment of adult dialysis and predialysis patients, statements and commentary are provided in the context of answers to clinical questions in Chapter 2 (Target Hb level and criteria for starting renal anemia treatment) and Chapter 4 (Evaluation of iron status and iron therapy). Furthermore, the essential information is provided alongside the critical issues in Chapter 1 (Diagnosis of renal anemia), Chapter 3 (Administration of ESAs—administration route and dose), Chapter 5 (ESA hyporesponsiveness), Chapter 6 (Side effects and concomitant symptoms of ESAs), and Chapter 7 (Red blood cell transfusion). In addition, the treatment of pediatric patients and post-renal transplant patients is discussed in Chapter 8 and Chapter 9, respectively.