High-throughput adaptive sampling for whole-slide histopathology image analysis (HASHI) via convolutional neural networks: Application to invasive breast cancer detection.

PLoS ONE. 2018;13(5):e0196828 DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0196828


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Journal Title: PLoS ONE

ISSN: 1932-6203 (Online)

Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

LCC Subject Category: Medicine | Science

Country of publisher: United States

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML



Angel Cruz-Roa

Hannah Gilmore

Ajay Basavanhally

Michael Feldman

Shridar Ganesan

Natalie Shih

John Tomaszewski

Anant Madabhushi

Fabio González


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Time From Submission to Publication: 24 weeks


Abstract | Full Text

Precise detection of invasive cancer on whole-slide images (WSI) is a critical first step in digital pathology tasks of diagnosis and grading. Convolutional neural network (CNN) is the most popular representation learning method for computer vision tasks, which have been successfully applied in digital pathology, including tumor and mitosis detection. However, CNNs are typically only tenable with relatively small image sizes (200 × 200 pixels). Only recently, Fully convolutional networks (FCN) are able to deal with larger image sizes (500 × 500 pixels) for semantic segmentation. Hence, the direct application of CNNs to WSI is not computationally feasible because for a WSI, a CNN would require billions or trillions of parameters. To alleviate this issue, this paper presents a novel method, High-throughput Adaptive Sampling for whole-slide Histopathology Image analysis (HASHI), which involves: i) a new efficient adaptive sampling method based on probability gradient and quasi-Monte Carlo sampling, and, ii) a powerful representation learning classifier based on CNNs. We applied HASHI to automated detection of invasive breast cancer on WSI. HASHI was trained and validated using three different data cohorts involving near 500 cases and then independently tested on 195 studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The results show that (1) the adaptive sampling method is an effective strategy to deal with WSI without compromising prediction accuracy by obtaining comparative results of a dense sampling (∼6 million of samples in 24 hours) with far fewer samples (∼2,000 samples in 1 minute), and (2) on an independent test dataset, HASHI is effective and robust to data from multiple sites, scanners, and platforms, achieving an average Dice coefficient of 76%.