This study aimed to investigate the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on milk production traits in Kilis dairy goats by analyzing the genotypes of POU1F1, PRLR, β-Lg, GH1, and GH2 genes and their association with lactation milk yield (LMY), lactation length (LL) and average daily milk yield (ADMY). Blood samples were collected from 227 goats, and genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results revealed that the frequencies of the genotypes varied among the genes. The polymorphisms were found to be significantly linked with milk production traits. These findings suggest that SNPs of POU1F1/AluI, PRLR/RsaI and β-Lg/SacII are significantly associated with LMY and that the POU1F1-TC genotype, PRLR-TT genotype and β-Lg-AB genotype are associated with higher LMY and ADMY. Additionally, the POU1F1-TC genotype was found to have a longer LL. However, no significant association was found between the GH1 and GH2 genotypes and LMY, LL and ADMY. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the genetic factors influencing milk production traits in Kilis dairy goats, which can be utilized for the selection of high-yielding animals in breeding programs.