Applied Sciences (Sep 2020)

A Robust Adaptive Overcurrent Relay Coordination Scheme for Wind-Farm-Integrated Power Systems Based on Forecasting the Wind Dynamics for Smart Energy Systems

  • Mian Rizwan,
  • Lucheng Hong,
  • Muhammad Waseem,
  • Shafiq Ahmad,
  • Mohamed Sharaf,
  • Muhammad Shafiq

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10, no. 18
p. 6318


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Conventional protection schemes in the distribution system are liable to suffer from high penetration of renewable energy source-based distributed generation (RES-DG). The characteristics of RES-DG, such as wind turbine generators (WTGs), are stochastic due to the intermittent behavior of wind dynamics (WD). It can fluctuate the fault current level, which in turn creates the overcurrent relay coordination (ORC) problem. In this paper, the effects of WD such as wind speed and direction on the short-circuit current contribution from a WTG is investigated, and a robust adaptive overcurrent relay coordination scheme is proposed by forecasting the WD. The seasonal autoregression integrated moving average (SARIMA) and artificial neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are implemented for forecasting periodic and nonperiodic WD, respectively, and the fault current level is calculated in advance. Furthermore, the ORC problem is optimized using hybrid Harris hawks optimization and linear programming (HHO–LP) to minimize the operating times of relays. The proposed algorithm is tested on the modified IEEE-8 bus system with wind farms, and the overcurrent relay (OCR) miscoordination caused by WD is eliminated. To further prove the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is also tested in a typical wind-farm-integrated substation. Compared to conventional protection schemes, the results of the proposed scheme were found to be promising in fault isolation with a remarkable reduction in the total operation time of relays and zero miscoordination.