Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2019-01-01)

Conception et évaluation de systèmes de culture maraîchers méditerranéens innovants pour gérer les nématodes à galles

  • Djian-Caporalino, C.,
  • Navarrete, M.,
  • Fazari, A.,
  • Baily-Bechet, M.,
  • Marteu, N.,
  • Dufils, A.,
  • Tchamitchian, M.,
  • Lefèvre, A.,
  • Pares, L.,
  • Mateille, T.,
  • Tavoillot, J.,
  • Palloix, A.,
  • Sage-Palloix, AM.,
  • Védie, H.,
  • Goillon, C.,
  • Castagnone-Sereno, P.

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 23, no. 1
pp. 7 – 21

Abstract

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Design and assessment of innovative Mediterranean vegetable cropping systems to manage root-knot nematodes. Description of the subject. A system approach based on co-design and experimental field evaluation of cropping systems (CSs), combining technical and varietal innovations, has been implemented for sustainable management of root-knot nematodes (RKN) in Mediterranean sheltered vegetable systems. Objectives. Cropping systems combining genetic resistance and cultural practices (crop rotations including susceptible, resistant, and non-host plants; intercropping management with nematicidal cover crops or soil solarization) were assessed over a period of 4 years (i) to reduce RKN populations and increase the durability of varietal resistances, (ii) to study the impact of these systems on soil ecology (plant-parasitic and free-living nematode communities), and (iii) to evaluate their acceptability by farmers. Method. Three CS prototypes, resulting from a co-design process with research and development stakeholders, were compared with CSs conventionally implemented in the Mediterranean region. The three prototypes were also evaluated using complementary methods: (i) system experiments in three commercial farms in Southern France; (ii) analytical experiments to decipher the mechanisms of action for some [agroecological??] levers; (iii) surveys to evaluate the acceptability of the prototypes by farmers. Results. All three CSs were found to be effective (90% RKN decrease, protection of partially resistant Solanaceae, no negative effect on non-phytoparasitic nematodes) and sustainable, when application conditions and soil biological equilibrium were favorable (global soil nematofauna diversified and abundant). The acceptability of the three systems depended on the type of farm where they were implemented and the attitude of the farmers towards innovation. Conclusions. These three CSs still need to be improved, in terms of their efficiency, in consultation with participating farmers, by introducing new agroecological levers, as well as innovation costs. Future research will also need to open up to a more comprehensive management of soil health.

Keywords