Several authors consider reading an important activity in school, professional and personal life. Perceptual processes, hemispheric lateralization, vision and phonological awareness are factors that intervene in reading skills that can influence the way of learning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the use of Irlen color transparencies on the quality of ocular follow-up during reading and the possible relationship with laterality. Participants were fifty-three (53) children, 6 and 7 years old, respectively 32 children with Irlen Syndrome (IS) or visual stress and 21 children as the reference group. All children were subjected to a series of visual standard tests to assess color blindness (Ishihara test), neuropsychological maturity (CUMANES test), Irlen syndrome (IRPS test) and rapid eye movement (K-D test). Research results reveal that reading capacity is not related to laterality, the use of color significantly improves the perceptual process of reading, and differences in reading attainment is noteworthy between children with Irlen and children without Irlen syndrome. New studies are suggested to consider the effect of attentional abilities, phonological awareness and verbal memory in reading.