The article is devoted to the text as a multifaceted concept that a pupil is faced with both when perceiving the educational content and producing his / her own oral and written answers. The emphasis in the article is made on the two most frequent types of speech used in various school subjects, that is description and reasoning. The purpose of the work is to systemize the philological knowledge about the text, its kinds and methods of its creation, since it is necessary to know for organizing the environment for language development. During the study the following methods were used: comparative method, generalization, comparison, systemization, theoretical analysis of research and methodological literature on text theory, stylistics, genre studies and methods of teaching Russian. As a conclusion specific features for describing an object and a portrait of a person are presented; the main types of classification are introduced and principles of their building-up are formulated. A special attention in regard to the essays is paid to the laws of logic. Various examples from school text books are given. It is concluded that taking into account all the achievements accumulated in the theory of text, stylistics, genre studies, as well as methods of teaching Russian for creating an environment for language development, will allow teachers to improve the perception of tasks by students and will contribute to the formation of skills for creating written and oral answers.