Abstract Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is little known in Brazilian indigenous populations. In the last two decades, important changes have occurred in the lifestyle and epidemiological profile of the Xavante people. Objective: to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Xavante adults in São Marcos and Sangradouro/Volta Grande reserves, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out with 925 Xavante people aged ≥ 20 years between 2008 and 2012. The following indicators were assessed: triglycerides (TG), total, LDL and HDL-cholesterol, Castelli index I and II, TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio, apo B / Apo A1 ratio, Framingham risk score, C-reactive protein, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW), glycemia and blood pressure. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student's t test and Chi-square test (χ2) were used for statistical analysis, and significance level was set at 5%. Results: High prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk was observed in men and women according to HDL-cholesterol (66.2% and 86.2%, respectively), TG (53.2% and 51.5%), TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio (60.0% and 49.1%), C-reactive protein (44.1% and 48.1%), BMI (81.3% and 81.7%), WC (59.1% and 96.2%), HW (38.0% and 50,6%) and glycemia (46.8% and 70.2%). Individuals aged 40 to 59 years had the highest cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: The Xavante have a high cardiovascular risk according to several indicators evaluated. The present analysis of cardiovascular risk factors provides support for the development of preventive measures and early treatment, in attempt to minimize the impact of cardiovascular diseases on this population.