The article presents the results of an empirical study of self-esteem of adolescents with mental retardation. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of self-concept and its components: behavioral, cognitive, evaluative. Students-adolescents’ self-esteem depends on how it is perceived by the others. One of the main age tasks becomes the search of one’s own place in the world. At this age adolescents restructure their relationships, the communication with peers and classmates getting the first importance. Children with developmental disabilities, in particular with mental retardation, tend to disharmonious development of components of the Self-concept, in particular self-esteem. Deviations in self-esteem development leave an imprint on the severity of adolescents’ self-centeredness, leading to inadequate assessment of others, themselves and the difficulties of socialization and integration into society. The article deals with the relationship and interdependence of the level of self-esteem and manifestations of self-centeredness in adolescents with mental retardation. The study makes it possible to develop a program in the future that will prevent the development of egocentrism in adolescents with mental retardation, create favorable conditions for adaptation, and further socialization of such children.