Background: As processing and cryopreservation of cord blood is time consuming and costly, it is essential to select units with optimal CD34+ cells, total nucleated cell (TNC) number and colony forming units (CFUs). These are the most important factors affecting outcome of UCB transplantation and are influenced by various maternal and neonatal factors. Aim and objectives: To determine the maternal and neonatal factors affecting TNC and CD34+ cell counts in cord blood so as to aid in proper selection of cord blood units for cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 UCB units were collected from normal vaginal deliveries, processed and assessed for volume, TNC, CD34+ cell count and CFU-GM. These parameters were then analyzed to find out whether they correlated with maternal and neonatal characteristics such as mother′s age, parity, gestational age, baby′s birth weight, and sex. Results: The volume of CB collected significantly correlated with the TNC, CD34+ cell, and CFU-GM yields (P < 0.02). A heavier placenta (P < 0.05), and a heavier baby (P < 0.002) were associated with a significantly greater volume of CB whereas the age, parity of mother and the sex of the baby had no significant effect. Conclusion: The only factors found to affect the TNC and CD34+ cell counts significantly were weight of the baby and placenta and the volume of cord blood collected. Since these factors are of prognostic significance, their analysis will aid in deciding which UCB unit should be processed and cryopreserved for UCB banking and subsequent transplantation.