The extraction of bioactive compounds in a biorefinery context could be a way to valorize agri-food byproducts, but there is a remaining part that also requires attention. Therefore, in this work the integrated extraction of phenolic compounds, including the bioactive oleuropein, and proteins from olive mill leaves was addressed following three schemes, including the use of ultrasound. This affected the total phenolic content (4475.5−6166.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g), oleuropein content (675.3−1790.0 mg/100 g), and antioxidant activity (18,234.3−25,459.0 µmol trolox equivalents/100 g). No effect was observed on either the protein recovery or the content of sugars and lignin in the extraction residues. Concerning the recovery of proteins, three operational parameters were evaluated by response surface methodology. The optimum (63.1%) was achieved using NaOH 0.7 M at 100 °C for 240 min. Then, the selected scheme was applied to olive leaves from the field, observing differences in the content of some of the studied components. It also changed the lignocellulosic profile of the extraction residues of both leaf types, which were enriched in cellulose. Overall, these results could be useful to diversify the valorization chain in the olive sector.