Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Measures in the Elderly: Reliability, Smallest Detectable Change and the Potential Influence of Lifestyle Habits

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2018;10 DOI 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00379

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

ISSN: 1663-4365 (Online)

Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.

LCC Subject Category: Medicine: Internal medicine: Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry

Country of publisher: Switzerland

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB, XML

 

AUTHORS

Francis Houde (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Francis Houde (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Sarah Laroche (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Sarah Laroche (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Veronique Thivierge (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Veronique Thivierge (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Marylie Martel (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Marylie Martel (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Marie-Philippe Harvey (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Marie-Philippe Harvey (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Frederique Daigle (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Frederique Daigle (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Ailin Olivares-Marchant (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Louis-David Beaulieu (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Louis-David Beaulieu (Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Research Lab in Neuro-Musculo-Skelettal Rehabilitation, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada)
Guillaume Leonard (Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)
Guillaume Leonard (Research Centre on Aging, CIUSSS de l’Estrie – CHUS, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 14 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to evaluate cortical function and corticospinal pathway in normal and pathological aging. Yet, the metrologic properties of TMS-related measurements is still limited in the aging population.Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to document the reliability and smallest detectable change of TMS measurements among community-dwelling seniors. A secondary objective was to test if TMS measurements differ between elders based on lifestyle, medical and socio-demographic factors.Methods: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single-pulse TMS were recorded in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in 26 elderly individuals (mean age = 70 ± 3.8 years). Resting motor threshold (rMT), MEP amplitudes and contralateral silent period (cSP) were measured on two separate occasions (1-week interval), and the standard error of the measurement (SEMeas), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and smallest detectable change in an individual (SDCindv) were calculated. Lifestyle, medical and socio-demographic factors were collected using questionnaires. TMS-related outcomes were compared using independent sample t-test based on the presence of chronic health diseases, chronic medication intake, obesity, history of smoking, physical activity levels, gender, and level of education.Results: rMT and cSP measures were the most reliable outcomes, with the lowest SEMeas and highest ICCs, whereas MEP amplitude-related measures were less reliable. SDCindv levels were generally high, even for rMT (7.29 %MSO) and cSP (43.16–50.84 ms) measures. Although not systematically significant, results pointed toward a higher corticospinal excitability in elderly individuals who were regularly active, who had no chronic medical conditions and who did not take any medication.Conclusion: Even though SDCindv levels were relatively high, these results show that rMT and cSP are the most reliable outcomes to investigate age-related changes in the corticomotor system and suggest that the influence of factors such as lifestyle habits and medications on TMS measures should be investigated further.