The reconstruction of a lithological profile based on geophysical logs of chemical composition provided by geochemical gamma-gamma well logging probes has been increasingly used for geophysical interpretation. A chemical profile, analogous to the measurements mentioned above, can be determined based on measurements made with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF). This paper presents a methodology for determining the mineral composition of drilled, clastic, as well as clay-rich rocks on the basis of both inexpensive and timesaving pXRF measurements as well as models combining the results of chemical composition analysis with results of mineral composition analysis (XRD). The results of chemical composition analysis obtained with a portable XRF spectrometer were calibrated based on a detailed analysis produced with ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. A significant advantage of the proposed method is the possibility to apply it with regard to drill cuttings as well as archival cores. However, considerable discrepancies in the results obtained were identified while comparing the results of chemical composition analysed directly on the core and milled material. The analysed material comprised Carboniferous rocks derived from three boreholes located in Poland: Kobylin-1 as well as Biesiekierz-1 and -2. It was possible to directly compare the lithological profile obtained based on measurements taken on drill cuttings with the results of the lithological interpretation of a geochemical probe log.