BMC Bioinformatics (Jun 2021)

Putative markers for the detection of early-stage bladder cancer selected by urine metabolomics

  • Jia-You Lin,
  • Bao-Rong Juo,
  • Yu-Hsuan Yeh,
  • Shu-Hsuan Fu,
  • Yi-Ting Chen,
  • Chien-Lun Chen,
  • Kun-Pin Wu

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 22, no. 1
pp. 1 – 16


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Abstract Background Early detection of bladder cancer remains challenging because patients with early-stage bladder cancer usually have no incentive to take cytology or cystoscopy tests if they are asymptomatic. Our goal is to find non-invasive marker candidates that may help us gain insight into the metabolism of early-stage bladder cancer and be examined in routine health checks. Results We acquired urine samples from 124 patients diagnosed with early-stage bladder cancer or hernia (63 cancer patients and 61 controls). In which 100 samples were included in our marker discovery cohort, and the remaining 24 samples were included in our independent test cohort. We obtained metabolic profiles of 922 compounds of the samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the metabolic profiles of the marker discovery cohort, we selected marker candidates using Wilcoxon rank-sum test with Bonferroni correction and leave-one-out cross-validation; we further excluded compounds detected in less than 60% of the bladder cancer samples. We finally selected eight putative markers. The abundance of all the eight markers in bladder cancer samples was high but extremely low in hernia samples. Moreover, the up-regulation of these markers might be in association with sugars and polyols metabolism. Conclusions In the present study, comparative urine metabolomics selected putative metabolite markers for the detection of early-stage bladder cancer. The suggested relations between early-stage bladder cancer and sugars and polyols metabolism may create opportunities for improving the detection of bladder cancer.