eLife (Nov 2016)

Neuroendocrine modulation sustains the C. elegans forward motor state

  • Maria A Lim,
  • Jyothsna Chitturi,
  • Valeriya Laskova,
  • Jun Meng,
  • Daniel Findeis,
  • Anne Wiekenberg,
  • Ben Mulcahy,
  • Linjiao Luo,
  • Yan Li,
  • Yangning Lu,
  • Wesley Hung,
  • Yixin Qu,
  • Chi-Yip Ho,
  • Douglas Holmyard,
  • Ni Ji,
  • Rebecca McWhirter,
  • Aravinthan DT Samuel,
  • David M Miller,
  • Ralf Schnabel,
  • John A Calarco,
  • Mei Zhen

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 5


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Neuromodulators shape neural circuit dynamics. Combining electron microscopy, genetics, transcriptome profiling, calcium imaging, and optogenetics, we discovered a peptidergic neuron that modulates C. elegans motor circuit dynamics. The Six/SO-family homeobox transcription factor UNC-39 governs lineage-specific neurogenesis to give rise to a neuron RID. RID bears the anatomic hallmarks of a specialized endocrine neuron: it harbors near-exclusive dense core vesicles that cluster periodically along the axon, and expresses multiple neuropeptides, including the FMRF-amide-related FLP-14. RID activity increases during forward movement. Ablating RID reduces the sustainability of forward movement, a phenotype partially recapitulated by removing FLP-14. Optogenetic depolarization of RID prolongs forward movement, an effect reduced in the absence of FLP-14. Together, these results establish the role of a neuroendocrine cell RID in sustaining a specific behavioral state in C. elegans.