The paper features a summary of the comprehensive studies of archaeological sites in the largest medieval urban centre of the pre-Mongol Volga Bolgaria – Bilyar (the Great Town) and its neighbouring areas. The article features the results of studies conducted over the last decade, which were intended to reconstruct the evolution of the landscape development system in the developed medieval period on the basis of GIS analysis. A thorough study of medieval fortified settlements was carried out by the authors with the aid of instrumental surveying and compilation of detailed topographic maps, as well as the updating of information from previous studies. These works contribute to the state registration and protection of cultural heritage sites in the neighbouring area of Bilyar district and the museumified ruins in the territory of Bilyar settlement. The authors summarize the results of application of remote sensing methods. In particular, such methods include the analysis of aerial, space and geophysical photography, their verification by archaeological methods (explorations and excavations), and the creation of three-dimensional models.