Background: Cytokines play an important role in occurrence and recovery of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of cytokines concentration and its correlation to alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA), hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg), and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in the development of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: Thirteen healthy individuals (HI), 30 chronic HBV-infected patients in immune tolerant (IT) phase, and 55 CHB patients were enrolled between August 2015 and May 2017. The peripheral blood samples were collected from all individuals. The levels of interferon (IFN)-α2, interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, HBV-DNA, HBsAg, and HBeAg and liver function were measured. The quantitative determinations of cytokines levels, including IFN-α2, IL-10, and TGF-β1 were performed using Luminex multiplex technology. The correlation of cytokines to ALT, HBV-DNA, HBsAg, and HBeAg was analyzed by linear regression analysis. Results: IFN-α2 levels were similar between HI and IT groups (15.35 [5.70, 67.65] pg/ml vs. 15.24 [4.07, 30.73] pg/ml, Z = −0.610, P = 0.542), while it elevated significantly in CHB group (35.29 [15.94, 70.15] pg/ml vs. 15.24 [4.07, 30.73] pg/ml; Z = −2.522, P = 0.012). Compared with HI group (3.73 [2.98, 11.92] pg/ml), IL-10 concentrations in IT group (5.02 [2.98, 10.11] pg/ml), and CHB group (7.48 [3.10, 18.00] pg/ml) slightly increased (χ2 = 2.015, P = 0.365), and there was no significant difference between IT and CHB group (Z = −1.419, P = 0.156). The TGF-β1 levels among HI (3.59 ± 0.20 pg/ml), IT (3.62 ± 0.55 pg/ml), and CHB groups (3.64 ± 0.30 pg/ml) were similar (χ2 = 2.739, P = 0.254). In all chronic HBV-infected patients (including patients in IT and CHB groups), the elevation of IFN-α2 level was significantly associated with ALT level (β= 0.389, t = 2.423, P = 0.018), and was also negatively correlated to HBV-DNA load (β = −0.358, t = −2.308, P = 0.024), HBsAg (β = −0.359, t = −2.288, P = 0.025), and HBeAg contents (β = −0.355, t = −2.258, P = 0.027). However, when both ALT level and cytokines were included as independent variable, HBV-DNA load, HBsAg, and HBeAg contents were only correlated to ALT level (β = −0.459, t = −4.225, P = 0.000; β = −0.616, t = −6.334, P = 0.000; and β = −0.290, t = −2.433, P = 0.018; respectively). Conclusions: IFN-α2 elevation was associated with ALT level in patients with chronic HBV infection. However, in CHB patients, only ALT level was correlated to HBV-DNA, HBsAg and HBeAg contents.