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As tentativas dos cognitivistas pioneiros The tentatives of the pioneer cognitivists

Estudos de Psicologia (Natal). 2004;9(1):5-15 DOI 10.1590/S1413-294X2004000100002

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Estudos de Psicologia (Natal)

ISSN: 1413-294X (Print); 1678-4669 (Online)

Publisher: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

LCC Subject Category: Philosophy. Psychology. Religion: Psychology

Country of publisher: Brazil

Language of fulltext: Spanish, Portuguese, English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB

 

AUTHORS


Reinier Johannes Antonius Rozestraten

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Double blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 22 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

O presente artigo pretende dar informações precisas sobre Oswald Külpe e sua aplicação do método experimental aos processos cognitivos. Como pensamos? As imagens perceptivas sempre são necessárias para desenvolver um pensamento? Qual a rapidez com que pensamos e como resolvemos problemas? Com o auxílio de seus alunos, dos quais vários se tornaram eminentes psicólogos, aperfeiçoou os métodos de observação e a análise dos resultados. Antes de aderir definitivamente à Psicologia, ficou dividido entre a História e a Psicologia e, apesar de usar métodos experimentais, considerou a Psicologia uma área pertencente à Filosofia. Na sua conferência de 1912, apresentou, como síntese, a existência de pensamentos sem conteúdos perceptivos, que o Eu desempenha um papel central no pensamento e que há, na solução de problemas, uma tendência dominante da tarefa. Depois de Würzburg, as escolas de Colônia, Mannheim e Amsterdã continuaram as pesquisas com novas abordagens em crianças surdo-mudas, descobrindo níveis na consciência e aplicando os novos conceitos sobre o pensamento e a solução de problemas ao ensino da escola fundamental. Foi, principalmente, este último ponto, o mais desenvolvido por Kohnstamm, acentuando a prática da leitura silenciosa como uma maneira para o pleno desenvolvimento das capacidades intelectuais das crianças.<br>This paper intends to offer more exact information about Oswald Külpe and his application of the experimental method on cognitive processes. How do we think? Are perceptive images always necessary to create our thinking? What is the speed of our thinking and how do we solve problems? With the support of his students - several of them were to be eminent psychologists - he improved the methods of observation and the analysis of the results. Before joining definitively psychology, for a long time he was divided between history and psychology and even using experimental methods considered psychology as belonging to the area of philosophy. In his conference of 1912, he presented as a synthesis the existence of imageless thinking, the central role of the Ego in thinking activity and the dominant tendency of the thinking task in problem solving. After Würzburg the schools of Colonia, Mannheim and Amsterdam continued the studies with new approaches for deaf-mute children education, discovering levels of conscience and the application of the new concepts about thinking and problem solving in primary school teaching. It was mainly this last point that was further developed by Kohnstamm emphasizing the practices of silent reading as a method to reach the full development of intellectual capacities of children.